– lowers blood pressure

The average participant in a pedometer-based walking program without dietary change can expect to lose a modest amount of weight, on the order of 1 kg. Results from the 9 cohorts we examined were remarkably consistent and did not vary by the population targeted or the goal-setting strategies used. These findings are consistent with previous research showing that increasing moderate-intensity physical activity tends to result in a modest amount of weight loss.–

The amount of weight loss attributable to pedometer-based walking programs is small but important from a clinical perspective. According to the meta-regression results, the average participant adhering to a pedometer-based walking program can expect to lose about 0.05 kg per week. That translates to a weight loss of about 1 lb every 10 weeks. Over a year, participants can expect to lose about 5 lb. Although a 5-lb weight loss for an overweight participant may represent only 2% to 3% of that person’s body weight, if the participant continues with the pedometer program and if the rate of weight loss is sustained over several years, the target of 7% of body weight loss used in the Diabetes Prevention Program study could be achieved.

Such modest amounts of weight loss, no matter how clinically important, may be discouraging to participants whose primary motivation for starting a walking program is to shed pounds. Unrealistic expectations of dramatic weight loss from such a program may result in early dropout. Helping participants set realistic and obtainable goals may be an important part of helping them stick with a walking program. Additionally, encouraging participants who are motivated by weight loss goals to add a dietary component to their walking program may yield more weight loss and thus may increase adherence.,,

Average daily step-count increases varied from slightly less than 2,000 steps per day to more than 4,000 steps per day across these studies. For the average person, a 2,000-step walk is approximately equal to a 1-mile walk. The daily increase in physical activity above baseline thus varied across these studies from an increase of 1 mile to slightly more than 2 miles of walking. At an average pace of 3 miles per hour, that represents an additional 20 to 40 minutes of walking a day and is in the range recommended by national guidelines. This increase in physical activity can be expected to result in health benefits that are independent of weight loss. Increasing physical activity reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events,,– lowers blood pressure, and helps dieters maintain lean muscle tissue during diet-induced weight loss. Additionally, a pedometer-based walking program can improve glucose tolerance in people with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.,

Unfortunately, we know very little about the long-term sustainability of weight loss from pedometer-based walking programs. More long-term studies of such programs are needed to better delineate their weight loss outcomes in that time frame.

There are several important limitations to this study. Because the analysis was based on preintervention-postintervention comparisons rather than on a comparison between randomized groups, there are a number of potential threats to validity, and the pooled estimate of approximately a 1.30-kg weight loss may either overestimate or underestimate the effect of the pedometer-based walking intervention. Participants who elect to join a walking program may be particularly motivated to change both their diet and exercise habits. Although none of the study interventions included in the meta-analysis had a dietary component, participants may have decreased their caloric intake on their own; therefore, the real cause of the weight loss might be dietary change rather than increased physical activity. To the extent that the weight loss observed in this review is attributable to participants’ self-initiated diet changes, we would be overestimating the impact of the increased energy expenditure due to the pedometer-based walking program on weight loss. It would not take much of a change in dietary intake to cause a 1-kg weight loss. Only a study in which meticulous records of dietary intake are kept for all participants could ensure that the weight loss we observed was not due to changes in diet. Evidence supporting the theory that walking programs can result in weight loss includes the results of 1 study that examined preintervention and postintervention strength and fitness levels. This study showed improved cardiorespiratory fitness and leg strength in addition to weight loss, suggesting that the exercise was of sufficient intensity to have a training effect.

It is more likely, however, that we have underestimated the impact of a pedometer-based walking program on weight loss. To the extent that individuals who did not start a walking program would have continued to slowly gain weight rather than maintain a stable weight, our weight loss estimate is lower than the actual change in weight attributable to the walking program. A large randomized controlled trial with a no-walking-program control arm for comparison would allow us to measure both the decreased weight gain and the weight lost from the walking program. The findings of a dose-response association with interventions that lasted longer resulting in larger amounts of weight loss adds evidence to our conclusion that the weight loss detected in this meta-analysis was in fact caused by the intervention itself.

  • 男子拿着手机放在中间的座位的边缘上

      原问题:男人西安地铁内偷拍女性隐私部位 今朝已被行拘 记者15日从西安市公安局获悉,西安市公安局地铁分局查获一路在......

    06-15    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 这已经是她怀孕后第二次被打了


    06-16    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 最近她看到同事在吃一种减肥药

      原问题:网购酵素梅减肥 28岁女子十天吃出肝病 原问题:想靠吃几颗酵素梅减肥杭州28岁女子十天吃出肝病 家住杭州临安的......

    06-25    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 全市共享单车总量由此前的103万辆减少至

      武汉共享单车再“瘦身”18.51万辆 8月尾前调减至58万辆拒不执行将严重处理 7月9日,光谷生物城创新东路陌头,共享单车明明......

    07-12    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 随后步入管理层

      导语: 间隔优衣库母公司迅销团体首创人柳井正70岁生日已经已往了6个月,这意味着间隔他给本身设定的卸任团体首席执行......

    09-05    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 受害者与凶手为夫妻关系的占63.8%

      【举世网报道 记者 王莉兰】女性受暴力侵吞已成为意大利社会的严厉题目。意大利司法部统计数据表现,2016年意大利近70......

    11-27    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • “同时关注到这是在政策严控地产和通道

      11月26日,中国信任业协会宣布《2019年3季度中国信任业成长评析》。 中国信任业协会指出,三季度信任资产局限环比降幅增......

    12-03    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • Instagram将限定整容手术和减肥产物的帖子


    12-08    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 在3年的随访期结束时


    12-23    来源:南方头条新闻网

  • 仅农药这块就节省将近5000元种植成本


    01-12    来源:南方头条新闻网

Ctrl+D 将本页面保存为书签,全面了解最新资讯,方便快捷。